Timo Laitinen

Research Fellow

Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, UCLan

About me

I am a heliophysics researcher at the University of Central Lancashire. My work concentrates on transport of charged energetic particles in the heliosphere, particularly the cross-field transport of particles perpendicular to the mean magnetic field.


  • Solar Energetic Particles
  • Heliophysics in general
  • Space Weather


  • PhD in Physics, University of Turku, Finland, 2003

  • Docent (Habilitation/Adjunct Professor) in Space Physics Physics, University of Turku, Finland, 2008

  • UK Higher Education Academy Fellowship (ref. PR118156), University of Central Lancashire, UK, 2016

  • MSc in Physics, University of Turku, Finland, 1997

Research Interests


My primary research interests lie in the Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). SEPs are fast electrons and charged ions that we observe during solar eruptions. Their origin is, after several decades of research, still being debated.

SEP acceleration

The Solar Energetic Particles are accelerate during solar eruptions, with the acceleration believed to be connected to the flare processes and the vast magnetic clouds that are ejected from the Sun at supersonic speeds into the corona and interplanetary space.

Read more…

SEP propagation in interplanetary space

For Solar Eneregetic Particles to reach Earth, they first have to propagate in the turbulent interplanetary space. This makes understanding SEP observations very complicated.

Read more…

Recent news

Recent papers

A selection of recent papers

GOES observations of of 2 November 2003 GLE (left) compared with SPARX-H forecast
C. O. G. Waterfall, S. Dalla, M. S. Marsh, T. Laitinen et al.,
Forecasting >300 MeV SEP Events: Extending SPARX to High Energies ,

Space Weather, 21, e2023SW003445, 2023, DOI , ADS

100 MeV protons simulated in turbulent heliosphere, 1 hour after injection
T. Laitinen, S. Dalla, C. O. G. Waterfall, A. Hutchinson et al.,
Solar energetic particle event onsets at different heliolongitudes: The effect of turbulence in Parker spiral geometry ,

A&A, 673, L8, 2023, DOI , ADS

Field line maps a2 1 au for different field line sources
T. Laitinen, S. Dalla, C. O. G. Waterfall, A. Hutchinson et al.,
An Analytical Model of Turbulence in Parker Spiral Geometry and Associated Magnetic Field Line Lengths ,

ApJ, 943, 108, 2023, DOI , ADS

Contact details


tlmlaitinen [at] uclan.ac.uk


+44-(0)1772 - 893280


Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE, UK